Polish grammar has…a reputation. Most people say it’s the hardest language in the world. In fact, that’s the reason I even started learning it.
And it’s true! The verb aspects are a pain. Even with numbers, Polish makes it unnecessarily complicated. There are some types of grammatical numbers that you can use, depending on situation and the type of thing you’re talking about. Of course, there are also the infamous case declensions.
But fear not! I’m here to clear it all up. Every type of number you’ll need, when to use them, how to use them. All in one place.
If you want to follow my language learning journey and how I got from zero to this point, don’t forget to subscribe to my YouTube channel, so you get all my tips and experiences earlier!
This guide assumes that you already know what the numbers and their declined forms are, so I can focus on how to use them and when to decline them. I won’t give you a full list, so if you’re lost, Wiktionary has all the declensions.
I also don’t recommend studying directly from this article. Instead, learn the grammar from context, and when you get confused, come back here for a reference.
The Basics…or are they?
Let’s start with the nominative and accusative. The basic, default cases that you use most. Should be simple enough, right?
In many cases, you will be using the default form (nominative) of the number, such as when the thing you are counting is the subject of a sentence. The form of the noun, though, will depend on the number:
1 (jeden): treat jeden like an adjective, and change its ending with the noun.
2–4: use the noun in the plural. Also any number that ends with 2, 3, or 4. Note that dwa becomes dwie with any feminine nouns, but trzy and cztery have no feminine forms.
The Number Takes Over
Before we get any further, I need to explain one phenomenon that I call “the number takes over“.
Normally, when you’re talking about a group of things, the things are the subject of the sentence. The verb works with the things.
Three men walk into a pub.
My two sisters don’t get along.
But in many, many situations in Polish, it works differently. The number becomes the subject of the sentence. It’s treated as the more important part of the phrase, instead of the noun itself. It’s a little bit like the words couple and trio in English, except way more common.Continue reading
Speaking as a guest at the University of Manchester Language Society.
Recorded in a hurry…sorry for the audio quality and the video framing.Continue reading
StenoKeyboards Uni: https://stenokeyboards.com/ https://www.youtube.com/@StenoKeyboards
Aerick: https://www.youtube.com/@AerickStenoContinue reading
Can Bright help you learn BSL without a class?
Bright BSL is unique not just among sign language apps, but language learning apps in general. It follows the Duolingo paradigm, while adding genuinely creative exercises to introduce you to the inner workings of sign language and Deaf culture.
The free trial has a surprisingly large amount of content — give it a go!
A few months ago, I started taking learning British Sign Language seriously.
Before that, I had done an online self-learning course, but quit halfway through, because it felt more like a dictionary than a conversation course. This year, I started taking a class at my university.
But I can’t help but wonder what other materials and resources exist out there, that can supplement my learning, or even give me a good foundation in the language.
You might be in a similar scenario, wanting to learn some sign, whether to communicate with someone you know, make new friends, or just learn a new language within a unique medium of communication. Perhaps you aren’t sure it’s for you, so you want to try it out, before committing more time and money to BSL.
I’ve got good news for you. Bright BSL might just be the Duolingo for British Sign Language — except better.
First of all, I’m obliged to remind you that there are many different sign languages in the world, and BSL is what’s generally used in the UK. There are also a lot of variation across regions, but what you’ll learn here will be understood in most places.
Let’s just jump to the conclusion: this is one of the best language apps I’ve ever tried.
It’s still recommended to take a class, but this might just be the next best thing. If you’re learning BSL but aren’t able to go to a class, or if you’d like to supplement your classroom learning, I wholeheartedly recommend you try this out. The only downside I can see is the price.
But if you want to learn more about why I think so, read on.Continue reading
How did we fall in love with Finnish grammar?
How long did I know these friends before meeting them?
Am I the ultimate polyglot?
How do you win the polyglot quiz?
Most importantly…where will the next Polyglot Gathering be held? Poland? Germany?
Let’s find out… Stay tuned (and TURN ON SUBTITLES) for the multilingual conversations I’ll have with my new friends!Continue reading
Why did I end up talking about immigration with Richard Simcott, one of the best known polyglots?
Can Europe has its own common language?
Why is it important to learn indigenous languages?
What languages do polyglots and language lovers sing in?
It’s the second day of the Polyglot Gathering 2022! In addition to many interesting talks, what else is happening?
Stay tuned (and TURN ON SUBTITLES) for the multilingual conversations I’ll have with my new friends!Continue reading
I really want to learn Welsh.
I don’t know why—I just started ‘vibing’ with the language, after a few months of dabbling. And the native speakers I’ve spoken to so far have been very enthusiastic about sharing their language and culture. It’s one of my favourite things about studying a minority language.
And after all this, I can tell you: it’s hard to learn.
But not for the reasons you’re thinking!
The language itself is not hard. I made a little meme about the mutations when I first read about them, but since then, I’d like to officially rescind it.
The grammar is okay, especially after Polish. It has quite a lot of unique vocabulary, especially where most European languages share a Latin loanword, but it also has a crap ton of modern English loans.
What makes it so hard?
Resources. (The right ones. Or: lack thereof.)
Allow me to explain.Continue reading